Dec 01 2009

Land use models – Hoyt, Burgess and Multiple-Nuclei

Land use models are made in order to explain and simplify complex and real world scenarios. They exist to explain the layout of cities and are not always right – each city is unique and has developed (grown or shrank) for various reasons. The slideshare show outlines some important points.

Sectors of the city which are common to all models include;

  1. Central Business District
  2. The inner city
  3. The suburbs
  4. The urban-rural fringe

What features are related to each section? How does house size and land-value change as you move out of the city?

Burgess Model – the oldest model (1925). Is based upon the value of land in cities. CBD land is more expensive than urban/rural fringe area therefore the houses are smaller due to the cost. Cities sprang up from the city centre (CBD) which is why the oldest and most expensive land rent is found there. BBC Bitesize website.

Hoyt Model

Land use models were made in the 20th Century to explain how land in cities is used. Hoyt created his model in 1939. Find a great outline of it from the BBC Bitesize website .

It is similar to the Burgess Model but also represents development through the concentric circles of industry and the low quality housing associated with factories and other forms of industry. Basically it is an update of the Burgess Model. The idea for its conception came from studying Chicago in the USA and the development of industry along the railroads south out of the city. Criticisms/limitations include – physical features can prevent the model from occurring. Wikipedia has a good explanation of the model. A great example of applying the Burgess model to Chicago can be found here.

Multiple-Nuclei Model

Created in 1959 as a result of studying many more cities this model is based around the idea that similar industries and buildings are found next to each other to make production and transportation cheaper. This may be why garages are found near auto-part centres and mechanics for example. Diagram from Wikipedia. The slides from this slideshare are excellent. Key factors influencing location in this model include compatibility (lawyers, banks and corporate headquarters), incompatibility (sewage works and hotels), accessibility (airports, hotels and motorways) and suitability (price and relief of land).

None of these are totally correct but evidence for their development can be seen in most cities. Which cities do you know can fit one of these models relatively well. Cultural and physical forces/factors influence development around the world – all places are different.

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